Contributions to Zoology, 86 (1) – 2017Isabel T Hyman; Irantzu de la Iglesia Lamborena; Frank Köhler: Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

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Parmavitrina rubrica (Shea and Griffiths, 2010) comb. nov.

Figs 22B, 23D, 24B, 27

Desidarion rubricus Shea and Griffiths, 2010 in Stanisic et al., 2010: 310-311, 331.


Material examined. Holotype. AM C.376379 (W of Wyee, NW of Dooralong, Watagan road above Lowers Gully, NSW, 33°10.150’S, 151°19.100’E, on rock near road edge, 13/1/2000).

Paratypes. AM C.333639; AM C.373660; AM C.373672; AM C.373717; QMMO29727.

Non-type material. See Table S1.


Diagnosis. Shell. Large, 3.4-3.6 whorls, greenish amber, ear-shaped, flattened, protoconch slightly raised, last whorl large with membranous base; shell glossy, protoconch with fine spiral grooves, teleoconch with very fine, indistinct spiral grooves (Table 3, Fig 22B, 23D).

Animal. Orange-brown with orange-red mucus, faintly spotted on tail and shell lappets; mid field of tail paler than outer fields, slime network well-developed, tail keeled, caudal horn small. Mantle lobes moderately large, none fused, median lobe forming cephalic shield; shell lappets moderately large, connected by a narrow collar, right lappet rounded with a small point (Fig. 24B).

Genitalia. Bursa copulatrix short, slightly longer than free oviduct, sac oval-shaped. Penis thick, moderately short, cylindrical, penis and part of epiphallus enclosed in penial tunica; penis interior with approx. five longitudinal, wavy pilasters. Epiphallus moderately short, about twice penis length, with internal cryptae adjacent to flagellum; epiphallus enters penis through short to medium length verge, ranging from one sixth to half penis length. Epiphallic flagellum with spiraling rows of internal cryptae and slender tail. Spermatophore with branching spines present in spiraling pattern on base of capsule; two rows of spines present, one of thick spines with multiple branches and the second of thinner, shorter, less branched spines; tail pipe short, smooth, without branches (Fig. 27).


Fig. 27. Reproductive anatomy of Parmavitrina rubrica. A. Genitalia, C.364763. B. Penial interior, C.364763. C. Genitalia, AM C.334201. D. Penial interior, QM MO49406. Abbreviations: alb, albumen gland; bc, bursa copulatrix; cg, capsule gland; ep, epiphallus; fl, flagellum; her, hermaphroditic duct; ov, ovotestis; p, penis; pp, penial pilasters; pr, prostate; prm, penial retractor muscle; pt, penial tunica; pv, penial verge; ut, uterus; vd, vas deferens. Scale bars: A, C = 4 mm, B, D = 2 mm.

Remarks. Parmavitrina rubrica is found in the Hunter region, in rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest from Ourimbah to north of Buladelah, with a population in Gordon (northern Sydney) that may be introduced (Fig. 26; Stanisic et al., 2010). This species is slightly smaller than P. planilabris and P. disposita. This size difference and its degenerate shell edge distinguishes it from P. disposita, which shares its orange-brown body colour. This species can also be distinguished by the combination of a moderately short, thick penis with wavy longitudinal pilasters and a short to moderately long penial verge.

A population south of Taree is anatomically distinct from the rest of the species. It has a much longer epiphallus and a penis with a shorter verge. Only a single sequence represents this population in the tree and while it is distinct from the rest of the species, it is not highly divergent, and so we retain this population as part of P. rubrica.