Contributions to Zoology, 86 (1) – 2017R.G. Bina Perl; Sarig Gafny; Yoram Malka; Sharon Renan; Douglas C. Woodhams; Louise Rollins-Smith; James D. Pask; Molly C. Bletz; Eli Geffen; Miguel Vences: Natural history and conservation of the rediscovered Hula painted frog, Latonia nigriventer

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S1. Rarefaction curve of bacterial OTUs from cutaneous bacterial communities of Latonia nigriventer compiled using Chao1 estimation. All quality sequence reads (250–253 bp) were clustered with UCLUST (97% similarity cut-off) prior to calculation of alpha diversity.

S2. List of species (vertebrates and selected macroinvertebrates) observed at the two main study sites.

S3. Webbing differences between female (left) and male (right) individuals of L. nigriventer. SVL (female –male): A) 80–82 mm; B) 106–105 mm; C) 107–109 mm; D) 112–114 mm. Images were cut from original photos of living individuals using Photoshop CS2 software (v 9.0, Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) and are not to scale.

S4. Raw measurements of captured individuals of Latonia nigriventer. AH =air humidity; aqu (e) = aquatic, partly exposed; aqu (s) = aquatic, fully submerged; AT = air temperature; BW = body width; CA = capture circumstances; CL = cloud coverage; CS = tip of characteristic colour patch on forehead to snout; ED = eye diameter; EF = length of elbow to finger tip; F = female; FS = neck fold to snout; HAL = hand length; HW = head width at eyes; IND = individual ID; IO = minimal interorbital distance; J = juvenile; LT = tarsal length; M = male; RC = recapture; Res = Reserve; SVL = snout-vent length; terr (e) = terrestrial, exposed; terr (h) = terrestrial, in hide; WE = Weight; YHM = Yesod HaMa’ala; – = missing values; 1 = hidden beneath leaf/reed litter; 2 = hidden in small burrow or cavity; 3 = hidden beneath grass tufts; 4 = hidden under wooden log.

S5. Measurements of three preserved Latonia nigriventer tadpoles. The term keratodont row always refers to a biserial row. A1 (first upper keratodont row), A2 (second upper keratodont row), A1-2 den (density of the keratodonts in row A1-2 ), A1-2 dist (distance between rows A1-2, measured between outer biserial rows at centre of oral disk), A1-2 num (number of keratodonts in A1-2 ), BH (maximal body height), BL (body length), BW (maximal body width), DF (dorsal fin height at mid-tail), DG (size of the dorsal gap of marginal papillae), DMTH (distance of maximal tail height from the tail-body junction), ED (eye diameter), EH (eyes height – measured from the lower curve of the belly to the centre of the eye), HAB (height of the point where the axis of the tail myotomes contacts the body – measured from the lower curve of the belly), IND (inter-narial distance – measured from the centre), IOD (inter-orbital distance – measured from the centre), JL (maximal jaw sheath length), LR (number of the lower rows of keratodonts), LTRF (labial tooth row formula), MP (marginal papillae), MTH (maximal tail height), ND (naris diameter), NH (naris height – measured from the lower curve of the belly to the centre of the naris), NP (naris-pupil distance), ODW (maximum oral disk width), P1 (first lower keratodont row), P1gap (medial gap in P1 ), P2 (second lower keratodont row), P3 (third lower keratodont row), P1-3 den (density of the keratodonts in row P1-3 ), P1-3 dist (distance between rows P1-3, measured between outer biserial rows at centre of oral disk), P1-3 num (number of keratodonts in row P1-3 ), RN (rostro-narial distance), SBH (distance between snout and the point of maximal body height), SBW (distance between snout and the point of maximal body width), SE (snout-eye distance), SL (spiracle length – measured from the visible edges), SS (snout-spiracle distance), TAL (tail length), TH (tail height at the beginning of the tail), THM (tail height at mid-tail), Thorn-pap (thorn-shaped papillae), TL (total length), TMH (tail muscle height at the beginning of the tail), TMHM (tail muscle height at mid-tail), TMW (tail muscle width at the beginning of the tail), UR (number of the upper rows of keratodonts), VF (ventral fin height at mid-tail) and VL (vent tube length).

S6. List of the 20 most frequent bacterial OTUs obtained from Latonia nigriventer skin samples in Yesod HaMa’ala. Ac = Actinobacteria; Ae = Aeromonadaceae; Al = Alphaproteobacteria; Ba = Bacteroidetes; Be = Betaproteobacteria; C = Caulobacteriaceae; E= Enterobacteriaceae; F = Flavobacteriaceae; G = Gammaproteobacteria; Mi = Micrococcaceae; Mo = Moraxellaceae; P = Pseudomonadaceae; S = Sphingobacteriaceae.

S7. MALDI-TOF MS of skin peptides of two female Latonia nigriventer individuals. Common mass signals are indicated by arrows.