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*Testing the results*

Each consensus tree summarizing a phylogenetic analysis is compared with the reference tree using the ITRI to assess resolving power and artefactual resolution yielded by each method, each set of outgroup branch length, and each topology. Resolving power is calculated as the proportion of FW for 3ts of the reference tree that are also present in the consensus tree, and can be understood as the proportion of ‘true information’ the analysis has retrieved. Artefactual resolution is calculated as the proportion of FW for 3ts of the consensus tree obtained from an analysis that is not present in the reference tree, and this represents artefactual resolution yielded by the analysis. We calculated means of ITRI (*i.e.*, we got a mean value for resolving power artefactual resolution on each reference topology). The statistical significance of differences in resolving power and artefactual resolution of the various methods of analysis was tested with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (for paired samples) to compare means of ITRI, because there was no sample with normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk test) and homoscedasticity of variances (Fisher test). Differences in topologies and branch lengths were tested using a Mann-Whitney test, and linear regressions were performed to test tendencies were the external/internal branch length ratio varies, as in trees D, E, F and G (Fig. 5). Because many comparisons were made, we use the false discovery rate procedure (Benjamini and Hochberg, 1995) to assess the statistical significance of the differences in performance.