Contributions to Zoology, 83 (4) – 2014S.D. Biju; Sonali Garg; Stephen Mahony; Nayana Wijayathilaka; Gayani Senevirathne; Madhava Meegaskumbura: DNA barcoding, phylogeny and systematics of Golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae) of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, with the description of seven new species

To refer to this article use this url:


Abraham RK, Pyron RA, Ansil BR, Zachariah A, Zachariah A. 2013. Two novel genera and one new species of treefrog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) highlight cryptic diversity in the Western Ghats of India. Zootaxa 3640: 177-189.

Al-Ghaferi N, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Coquet L, Jouenne T, Leprince J, Vaudry H, King JD, Conlon JM. 2009. Antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of the South-East Asian frog Hylarana erythraea (Ranidae). Peptides 31: 548-554.

Arntzen JW, McAtear J, Recuero E, Ziermann JM, Ohler A, van Alphen J, Martínez-Solano I. 2013. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae). Contributions to Zoology 82: 147-169.

Bain RH, Lathrop A, Murphy RW, Orlov NL, Ho CT. 2003. Cryptic species of a cascade frog from Southeast Asia: taxonomic revisions and descriptions of six new species. American Museum Novitates 3417: 1-60.

Bain RH, Biju SD, Brown R, Das I, Diesmos A, Dutta S, Gower D, Inger R, Iskandar D, Kaneko Y, Lau MWN, Meegaskumbura M, Ohler A, Papenfuss T, Pethiyagoda R, Stuart B, Wilkinson M, Xie Feng. 2008. Amphibians of the Indomalayan Realm. Pp. 74-79 in: Stuart SN, Hoffmann M, Chanson, JS, Cox, NA, Berridge RJ, Ramani P, Young BE, eds, Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.

Bickford D, Lohman DJ, Sodhi NS, Ng PKL, Meier R, Winker K, Ingram KK, Das I. 2007. Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22: 148-155.

Biju SD. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. ISBC - Occasional Publication 1: 1-24.

Biju SD, Bossuyt F. 2003. New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature 425: 711-714.

Biju SD, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Dutta SK, Inger RF, de Silva A. 2004a. Hylarana aurantiaca in: IUCN 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <>. Downloaded on 5 January 2014.

Biju SD, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Dutta SK, Inger, RF, de Silva A. 2004b. Hylarana temporalis In: IUCN 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <>. Downloaded on 5 January 2014.

Biju SD, Dutta SK, Inger, RF. 2004c. Hylarana malabarica In: IUCN 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <>. Downloaded on 5 January 2014.

Biju SD, Bossuyt F. 2005a. New Species of Philautus (Anura: Ranidae, Rhacophorinae) from Ponmudi Hill in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of herpetology 39: 349-353.

Biju SD, Bossuyt F. 2005b. A new species of frog (Ranidae, Rhacophorinae, Philautus) from the rainforest canopy in the Western Ghats. Current Science 88: 175-178.

Biju SD, Bossuyt F. 2005c. Two new Philautus (Anura: Ranidae: Rhacophorinae) from Ponmudi Hill in the Western Ghats of India. Copeia 2005: 29-37.

Biju SD, Bossuyt F. 2006. Two new species of Philautus (Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae) from the Western Ghats, India. Amphibia-Reptilia 27: 1-9.

Biju SD, Bossuyt F. 2009. Systematics and phylogeny of Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Anura, Rhacophoridae) in the Western Ghats of India, with descriptions of 12 new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 374-444.

Biju SD, Van Bocxlaer I, Giri VB, Roelants K, Nagaraju J, Bossuyt F. 2007. A new nightfrog, Nyctibatrachus minimus sp. nov. (Anura: Nyctibatrachidae): The smallest frog from India. Current Science 93: 854-858.

Biju SD, Roelants K, Bossuyt F. 2008a. Phylogenetic position of the montane treefrog Polypedates variabilis Jerdon, 1853 (Anura: Rhacophoridae), and description of a related species. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 8: 267-276.

Biju SD, Kamei R, Bhatta G, Giri V, Cox N, Das I, Bossuyt F. 2008b. Diversity and conservation status of the Western Ghats amphibians. Pp. 80-82 in: Stuart SN, Hoffmann M, Chanson, JS, Cox, NA, Berridge RJ, Ramani P, Young BE, eds., Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.

Biju SD, Van Bocxlaer I, Giri VB, Loader SP, Bossuyt F. 2009. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India. BMC research notes 2: 241.

Biju SD, Shouche Y, Dubois A, Dutta SK, Bossuyt F. 2010. A ground-dwelling rhacophorid frog from the highest mountain peak of the Western Ghats of India. Current Science 98: 1199-1125.

Biju SD, Bocxlaer I, Mahony S, Dinesh KP, Radhakrishnan C, Zachariah A, Giri V, Bossuyt F. 2011. A taxonomic review of the Night Frog genus Nyctibatrachus Boulenger, 1882 in the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Nyctibatrachidae) with description of twelve new species. Zootaxa 3029: 1-96.

Biju SD, Garg S, Gururaja KV, Shouche Y, Walujkar SA. 2014. DNA barcoding reveals unprecedented diversity in Dancing Frogs of India (Micrixalidae, Micrixalus): a taxonomic revision with description of 14 new species. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences) 43: 1-87.

Bopage MM, Wewalwala K, Krvavac M, Jovanovic O, Safarek G, Pushpamal V. 2011. Species diversity and threat status of amphibians in the Kanneliya Forest, lowland Sri Lanka. Salamandra 47: 173-177.

Bossuyt F, Milinkovitch MC. 2000. Convergent adaptive radiations in Madagascan and Asian ranid frogs reveal covariation between larval and adult traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97: 6585-6590.

Bossuyt F, Meegaskumbura M, Beenaerts N, Gower DJ, Pethiyagoda R, Roelants K, Mannaert A, Wilkinson M, Bahir MM, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Ng PKL, Schneider CJ, Oommen OV, Milinkovitch MC. 2004. Local endemism within the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Science 306: 479-481.

Bossuyt F, Brown RM, Hillis DM, Cannatella DC, Milinkovitch MC. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of cosmopolitan frog radiation: Late Cretaceous diversification resulted in continent-scale endemism in the family Ranidae. Systematic Biology 55: 579-594.

Boulenger GA. 1882. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the Collection of the British Museum, Second Edition. British Museum (Natural History), Taylor and Francis, London.

Boulenger GA. 1904. Descriptions of three new frogs from southern India and Ceylon. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 15: 430-431.

Boulenger GA. 1920. A monograph of the South Asian, Papuan, Melanesian and Australian frogs of the genus Rana. Records of the Indian Museum 20: 1-226.

Bortamuli T, Bordoloi S, Ohler A, Grosjean S. 2010. External morphology, buccopharyngeal anatomy and development rate of the tadpoles of two Asian Ranidae (Amphibia: Anura), Hylarana humeralis (Boulenger, 1887) and Hylarana leptoglossa (Cope, 1868). Journal of Natural History 44: 421-445.

Chanda SK, Das I, Dubois A. 2001 [2000]. Catalogue of amphibian types in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India. Hamadryad 25: 100-128.

Chanda SK. 2002. Hand book - Indian Amphibians. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.

Chari VK. 1962. A description of the hitherto undescribed tadpole of, and some field notes on the Fungoid Frog Rana malabarica (Bibr.). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 59: 71-76.

Che J, Pang J, Zhao H, Wu GF, Zhao EM, Zhang YP. 2007. Phylogeny of Raninae (Anura: Ranidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1-13.

Che J, Chen HM, Yang JX, Jin JQ, Jiang K, Yuan ZY, Murphy RW, Zhang YP. 2012. Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians. Molecular Ecology Resources 12: 247-258.

Chen L, Murphy RW, Lathrop A, Ngo A, Orlov NL, Ho CT, Somorjai ILM. 2005. Taxonomic chaos in Asian ranid frogs: an initial phylogenetic resolution. Herpetological Journal 15: 231-243.

Conlon JM, Power GJ, Abdel-Wahab YHA, Flatt PR, Jiansheng H, Coquet L, Leprince J, Jouenne T, Vaudry H. 2008a. A potent, non-toxic insulin-releasing peptide isolated from an extract of the skin of the Asian frog, Hylarana guntheri (Anura: Ranidae). Regulatory Peptides 29: 151-153.

Conlon JM, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Leprince J, Vaudry H, Coquet L, Jouenne T, King JD. 2008b. Characterization of antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of the Malaysian frogs, Odorrana hosii and Hylarana picturata (Anura:Ranidae). Toxicon 52: 465-473.

Daniel JC, Sekar AG. 1989. Field guide to the Amphibians of western India. IV. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 86: 194-202.

Daniels RJR. 2005. Amphibians of Peninsular India. Universities Press (India), Hyderabad.

De Silva A. 2009. Amphibians of Sri Lanka: A Photographic Guide to Common Frogs, Toads and Caecilians. Published by the author, Colombo.

Du Preez LH, Carruthers VC. 2009. A Complete Guide to the Frogs of Southern Africa. Struik Nature, Cape Town.

Dubois A. 1984. Note preliminaire sur le groupe de Rana limnocharis Gravenhorst, 1829 (Amphibiens, Anoures). Alytes 3: 143-159.

Dubois A. 1992. Notes sur la classification des Ranidae (Amphibiens anoures). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 61: 305-352.

Dubois A. 2005. Amphibia Mundi. 1.1. An ergotaxonomy of recent amphibians. Alytes 23: 1-24.

Dutta SK. 1990. Rana bhagmandlensis: a junior synonym of Rana aurantiaca Boulenger (Anura: Ranidae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 87: 310.

Dutta SK. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka (Checklist and Bibliography). Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Dutta SK, Manamendra-Arachchi K. 1996. The Amphibian fauna of Sri Lanka. Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

Elmer KR, Dávila JA, Lougheed SC. 2007. Cryptic diversity and deep divergence in an upper Amazonian Leaflitter Frog, Eleutherodactylus ockendeni. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 247.

Fei L, Ye C, Jiang J. 2010. Phylogenetic systematics of Ranidae. Herpetologica Sinica 12: 1-43.

Fitzinger LJFJ. 1843. Systema Reptilium. Fasciculus Primus. Wien: Braumüller et Seidel.

Fouquet A, Gilles A, Vences M, Marty C, Blance M, Gemmel NJ. 2007a. Underestimation of species richness in neotropical frogs revealed by mtDNA analysis. PLoS ONE 2: e1109.

Fouquet A, Vences M, Salducci MD, Meyer A, Marty C, Blanc M, Gilles A. 2007b. Revealing cryptic diversity using molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography in frogs of the Scinax ruber and Rhinella margaritifera species groups. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 567-582.

Frank N, Ramus E. 1995. Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of the World. N. G. Publishing Inc., Pottsville, Pennsylvania.

Frost DR. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (20 February 2014). Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

Frost DR, Grant T, Faivovich J, Bain RH, Haas A, Haddad CFB, Rafael O. De Sa et al. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1-291.

Funk WC, Caminer M, Ron SR. 2011. High levels of cryptic species diversity uncovered in Amazonian frogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 1806-1814.

Gawor A, Hendrix A, Vences M, Bohme W, Ziegler T. 2009. Larval morphology in four species of Hylarana from Vietnam and Thailand with comments on the taxonomy of H. nigrovittata sensu latu (Anura: Ranidae). Zootaxa 2051: 1-25.

Girish S, Saidapur SK. 1999. The effects of density and kinship on growth and metamorphosis of the bronzed frog (Rana temporalis) tadpoles. Acta ethologica 2: 61-66.

Grandison AGC, Senanayake FR. 1966. Redescription of Rana (Hylarana) aurantiaca Boulenger (Amphibia: Ranidae). Annals & Magazine of Natural History 13: 419-421.

Gravenhorst JLC. 1829. Deliciae Musei Zoologici Vratislaviensis. Fasciculus primus. Chelonios et Batrachia. Leopold Voss, Leipzig.

Grosjean S. 2005. The choice of external morphological characters and developmental stages for tadpole-based anuran taxonomy: a case study in Rana (Sylvirana) nigrovittata (Blyth, 1855) (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Contributions to Zoology 74: 1-22.

Guibé J. 1950 [1948]. Catalogue des Types d’Amphibiens du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Imprimerie Nationale, Paris.

Gunatilleke CVS, Gunatilleke IAUN. 1985. Phytosociology of Sinharaja — A contribution to rain forest conservation in Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation 31: 21-40.

Gunawardene NR, Daniels AED, Gunatilleke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS, Karunakaran PV, Nayak KG, Prasad S, Puyravaud P, Ramesh BR, Subramanian KA, Vasanthy, G. 2007. A brief overview of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Current Science 93: 1567-1572.

Günther ACLG. 1859 [1858]. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the Collection of the British Museum. Taylor and Francis, London.

Günther ACLG. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. Ray Society by R. Hardwicke. London.

Haas A. 1996. Non-feeding and feeding tadpoles in hemiphractine frogs: larval head morphology, heterochrony, and systematics of Flectonotus goeldii (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 34: 163-171.

Haas A. 1997. The larval hyobranchial apparatus of discoglossoid frogs: its structure and bearing on the systematics of Anura (Amphibia: Anura). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 35: 179-197.

Hasan M, Islam MM, Khan MMR, Alam MS, Kurabayashi A, Igawa T, Kuaramoto M, Sumida M. 2012. Cryptic anuran biodiversity in Bangladesh revealed by mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Zoological Science 29: 162-172.

Hiragond NC, Saidapur SK. 1999. Description of tadpoles of Rana temporalis from South India. Current Science 76: 442-446.

Hiragond NC, Saidapur SK. 2001. Microhabitat choice of tadpoles of seven anuran species. Current Herpetology 20: 51-60.

Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F. 2001. MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics 17: 754-755.

Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F, Nielsen R, Bollback JP. 2001. Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science 294: 2310-2314.

Jerdon TC. 1853. Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 22: 522-534.

Inger RF, Shaffer HB, Koshy M, Bakde R. 1985 [1984]. A report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Ponmudi, Kerala, South India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 81: 551-570.

Inger RF, Stuart BL, Iskandar DT. 2009. Systematics of a widespread Southeast Asian frog, Rana chalconota (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 123-147.

Kamei RG, Gower DJ, Wilkinson M, Biju SD. 2013. Systematics of the caecilian family Chikilidae (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) with the description of three new species of Chikila from northeast India. Zootaxa 3666: 401-435.

Kirtisinghe P. 1957. The Amphibia of Ceylon. Published by the author, Colombo.

Kotaki M, Kurabayashi A, Matsui M, Kuramoto M, Djong TH, Sumida M. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the diversified frogs of genus Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zoological Science 27: 386-395.

Maglia AM, Pugener LA, Trueb L. 2001. Comparative development of anurans: using phylogeny to understand ontogeny. American Zoologist 41: 538-551.

Matsui M, Shimada T, Ota H, Tomoko TU. 2005. Multiple invasions of the Ryukyu Archipelago by Oriental frogs of the subgenus Odorrana with phylogenetic reassessment of the related subgenera of the genus Rana. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 733-742.

McLeod DS. 2010. Of least concern? Systematics of a cryptic species complex: Limnonectes kuhlii (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 991-1000.

Meegaskumbura M, Bossuyt F, Pethiyagoda R, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Bahir M, Milinkovitch MC, Schneider CJ. 2002. Sri Lanka: an amphibian hotspot. Science 298: 379.

Meegaskumbura M, Manamendra-Arachchi K. 2005. Description of eight new species of shrub frogs (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae: Philautus) from Sri Lanka. Pp. 305-338 in: Yeo DCJ, Ng PKL, Pethiyagoda R, eds., Contributions to biodiversity exploration and research in Sri Lanka. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 12. Singapore.

Meegaskumbura M, Meegaskumbura S, Bowatte G, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Pethiyagoda R, Hanken J, Schneider CJ. 2010. Taruga (Anura: Rhacophoridae), a new genus of foam-nesting tree frogs endemic to Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences) 39: 75-94.

Meegaskumbura M, Manamendra-Arachchi K. 2011. Two new species of shrub frogs (Rhacophoridae: Pseudophilautus) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 2747: 1-18.

Meyer CP, Paulay G. 2005. DNA barcoding: error rates based on comprehensive sampling. PLoS biology 3: 2229-2238.

Mittermeier RA, Robles Gil P, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim JD, Brooks TM, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB da. 2004. Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Ecoregions. CEMEX, Mexico City.

Myers CW, Duellman WE. 1982. A New Species of Hyla from Cerro Colorado, and other tree frog records and geographical notes from western Panama. American Museum novitates 2752: 1-32.

Myers N, Mittermier RA, Mittermier CG, Fonescaand da GAB, Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.

Padhye A, Anushree J, Manawa D, Neelesh D. 2012. Population variations in the fungoid frog Hylarana malabarica (Anura: Ranidae) from northern Western Ghats of India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4: 2343-2352.

Peters WCH. 1863. Über eine neue Schlangen-Gattung, Styporhynchus, und verschiedene andere Amphibien des zoologischen Museum. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1863: 399-413.

Pethiyagoda R, Manamendra-Arachchi K. 1998. Evaluating Sri Lanka’s amphibian diversity. Occasional Papers of the Wildlife Heritage Trust 2: 1-12.

Pethiyagoda R, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Bahir MM, Meegaskumbura M. 2006. Sri Lankan amphibians: diversity, uniqueness and conservation. Pp. 65-69 in: Bambaradeniya CNB, ed., The Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union Sri Lanka & Government of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

Posada D, Crandall KA. 1998. MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14: 817-818.

Pyron RA, Wiens JJ. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543-583.

Rao CRN. 1922. Notes on Batrachia. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 28: 439-447.

Rao CRN. 1937. On some new forms of Batrachia from S. India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B 6: 387-427.

Reshmy V, Preeji V, Parvin A, Santhoshkumar K, George S. 2010. Molecular cloning of a novel bradykinin-related peptide from the skin of Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis. Genomics Insights 3: 23-28.

Reshmy V, Preeji V, Parvin A, Santhoshkumar K, George, S. 2011. Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae). Journal of Peptide Science 17: 342-347.

Roelants K, Jiang J, Bossuyt F. 2004. Endemic ranid (Amphibia: Anura) genera in southern mountain ranges of the Indian subcontinent represent ancient frog lineages: evidence from molecular data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31: 730-740.

Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Savage JM, Heyer WR. 1967. Variation and distribution in the tree-frog genus Phyllomedusa in Costa Rica, Central America: With 6 figures. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 2: 111-131.

Simon C, Frati F, Beckenbach A, Crespi B, Liu H, Flook P. 1994. Evolution, weighting and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87: 651-701.

Smith MA, Poyarkov NA Jr., Hebert PDN. 2008. CO1 DNA barcoding amphibians: take the chance, meet the challenge. Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 235-246.

Swofford DL. 2002. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and other methods), Version 4.0b10. Sinauer, Sunderland.

Stuart BL, Inger RF, Voris HK. 2006. High level of cryptic species diversity revealed by sympatric lineages of Southeast Asian forest frogs. Biology Letters 2: 470-474.

Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 2731-2739.

Tschudi JJv. 1838. Classification der Batrachier mit Berücksichtigung der fossilen Thiere dieser Abtheilung der Reptilien. Petitpierre, Neuchâtel.

Ukuwela KDB. 2009. Description of the tadpole of Hylarana aurantiaca (Anura: Ranidae) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 2016: 67-68.

Veeranagoudar DK, Shanbhag BA, Saidapur SK. 2004a. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis: Experimental evidence for the ideal free distribution. Journal of Biosciences 29: 201-207.

Veeranagoudar DK, Shanbhag BA, Saidapur SK. 2004b. Mechanism of food detection in the tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis. Acta Ethologica 7: 37-41.

Vieites DR, Wollenberg KC, Andreone F, Köhler J, Glaw F, Vences M. 2009. Vast underestimation of Madagascar’s biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 8267-8272.

Wang H, Lu Y, Zhang X, Hu Y, Yu H, Liu J, Sun J. 2009. The novel antimicrobial peptides from skin of Chinese broad-folded frog, Hylarana latouchii (Anura: Ranidae). Peptides 30: 273-282.

Wiens JJ, Sukumaran J, Pyron RA, Brown RM. 2009. Evolutionary and biogeographic origins of high tropical diversity in Old World frogs (Ranidae). Evolution 63: 1217-1231.

Zachariah A, Dinesh KP, Kunhikrishnan E, Das S, Raju DV, Radhakrishnan C, Palot MJ, Kalesh S. 2011. Nine new species of frogs of the genus Raorchestes (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Western Ghats, India. Biosystematica 5: 25-48.