Morphology and recognition of new species
Our study adopted an integrative approach in recognising species based on molecular and morphological data. The candidate species were compared with all available types, and with recently collected specimens from the type localities for species whose type series have been lost or destroyed. For convenience of discussion, Hylarana species were grouped as small (25-40 mm), medium (41-70 mm) and large (71-95 mm). Sex and maturity were determined by examining gonads through a small lateral or ventral incision. Only mature (adult) animals were used for morphological analysis, species comparisons and as type series. Identity of sub-adult specimens was confirmed through molecular analysis allowing inclusion of their collection localities in the distribution of respective species.
Measurements and associated terminology follow Biju et al. (2011); webbing formula follows Savage and Heyer (1967) as modified by Myers and Duellman (1982). The amount of webbing relative to subarticular tubercles is described by numbering the tubercles 1-3, starting from the toe discs. The term shank is used here to refer to the part of the leg containing the tibia, and thigh is used for the part containing the femur. Measurements of all specimens were taken by SDB (with the exception of the type series of Hylarana aurantiaca, H. temporalis and H. montanus by SM), using a digital slide-caliper, or a binocular microscope with a micrometre ocular, to the nearest 0.1 mm. All measurements provided in the taxonomy section are in millimetres. Range, average and standard deviation used in the ‘comparison’ section without mentioning the sex are for males. Abbreviations: SVL (snout-vent length), HW (head width, at the angle of the jaws), HL (head length, from the rear of the mandible to the tip of the snout), MN (distance from the rear of the mandible to the nostril), MFE (distance from the rear of the mandible to the anterior orbital border), MBE (distance from the rear of the mandible to the posterior orbital border), SL (snout length, from the tip of the snout to the anterior orbital border), EL (eye length, horizontal distance between the bony orbital borders), IUE (inter upper eyelid width, shortest distance between the upper eyelids), UEW (maximum upper eyelid width), IFE (internal front of the eyes, shortest distance between the anterior orbital borders), IBE (internal back of the eyes, shortest distance between the posterior orbital borders), FAL (forearm length, from the flexed elbow to the base of the outer palmar tubercle), HAL (hand length, from the base of the outer palmar tubercle to the tip of the third finger), SHL (shank length), TL (thigh length), FOL (foot length, from the base of the inner metatarsal tubercle to the tip of the fourth toe), TFOL (distance from the heel to the tip of the fourth toe), FD (disc width of finger), FW (width of finger, measured at the base of the disc), TD (disc width of toe), TW (width of toe, measured at the base of the disc), digit number is represented by roman numerals I-V.