Contributions to Zoology, 73 (4) (2004)Thomas Geissmann; Colin P. Groves; Christian Roos: The Tenasserim Lutung, Trachypithecus barbei (Blyth, 1847) (Primates: Cercopithecidae): Description of a live specimen, and a reassessment of phylogenetic affinities, taxonomic history, and distribution

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DNA sequences

In order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of the study animal, a 573 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from a number of langur species and phylogenetically analyzed.

Pairwise difference analyses within Trachypithecus revealed that T. barbei is different in 4.4 - 16.4% to other species of the genus (Table 2). The lowest differences of the study animal to other Trachypithecus species were detected to T. obscurus and T. p. phayrei (4.4 - 4.5%) and are even higher than those observed between the three members of the T. cristatus group (T. cristatus, T. germaini and T. a. auratus) (3.1 - 4.2%). The two analyzed subspecies of T. phayrei (T. p. phayrei and T. p. crepusculus) differ in 8.9% which is as unexpected as the extremely high difference detected between four species of Trachypithecus (T. geei, T. pileatus, T. johnii and T. vetulus) and all the other species of the group (14.8 - 18.8%). Interestingly, the latter four species differ only in 3.1 - 9.8% from the two members of the genus Semnopithecus (S. e. hector and S. e. priam). The two analyzed species of Presbytis (P. c. comata and P. m. mitrata) differ in 3.1%.


. Distances among analysed leaf monkey data.

All three tree reconstruction methods revealed the same topology and differed only by bootstrap or puzzling support values (Figure 2). The analyzed langur species are divided in three significantly supported clades with one containing the two Presbytis species, one the two representatives of Semnopithecus as well as T. geei, T. pileatus, T. johnii and T. vetulus (in the following named Indian clade) and finally, a clade with all the remaining Trachypithecus species including the study animal. The relationships among the three clades however are not significantly supported (57 - 89%), although a Trachypithecus/Indian clade grouping is indicated. Within the Indian clade, the relationships among the species are not well resolved. There is strong support, however, for a S. e. priam/T. vetulus and a T. geei/T. pileatus clade. The Trachypithecus clade consists for three significantly supported major groups with unresolved relationships among them. One comprises all members of the T. cristatus group (T. cristatus, T. germaini and T. a. auratus), a second one T. p. crepusculus and T. f. francoisi, and a third one including T. obscurus, T. p. phayrei and T. barbei. The reconstructed trees allow no clear resolution of the relationships among the latter three species, however, although NJ and ML algorithms indicate a sister grouping of T. obscurus and T. p. phayrei.


Fig. 2. 50%-majority rule consensus trees for a) the maximum-parsimony, b) the neighbor-joining and c) the maximum-likelihood algorithms. Numbers on nodes indicate bootstrap or quartet-puzzling support values. In the maximum-likelihood tree, branch lengths are drawn according to the number of substitutions per position, with the bar indicating 0.1 substitutions per site.