Five Scolelepis species from the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean are reported and certain species previously synonymized with Scolelepis (S.) squamata are revised. Four species are reinstated: S. (S.) goodbodyi (Jones, 1962), S. (S.) minuta (Treadwell, 1939), S. (S.) acuta (Treadwell, 1914), and S. (S.) agilis (Verrill, 1873); and two are described as new: S. (S.) lighti n. sp., and S. (S.) vossae n. sp. Scolelepis (Scolelepis) goodbodyi (Jones, 1962) n. comb., S. (S.) minuta (Treadwell, 1939) n. comb., S. (S.) acuta (Treadwell, 1914), and S. (S.) agilis (Verrill, 1873) are removed from synonymy with S. (S.) squamata Müller, 1806. The record of Scolelepis (P.) texana Foster, 1971 from the Grand Caribbean region is confirmed. A key to all Scolelepis species from the Grand Caribbean is provided.