Province of East Java
26. Mt. Liman-Wilis
Counties: Madiun, Nganjuk, Kediri, Tuban, Trenggalek, Ponorogo.
Habitat: The mountain complex comprises four summits of which the Liman is the tallest (2563 m a.s.l.). Forest fires occur regularly and large parts of the area are covered with shrubs and small trees and sparse Casuarina forest on the upper slopes. The lower southeastern slopes of Mt. Wilis are still well forested, while in the other parts scattered patches of forest remain amidst secondary forest, regrowth, bushes, and plantations. The forests on Mt. Wilis are a proposed 45,000 ha large game reserve, while two small areas, Mt. Sigogor (190 ha) and Picis (28 ha), are long-time registered nature reserves (MacKinnon et al., 1982).
Status: A number of groups of ebony leaf monkeys were observed mainly in the eastern and northern part of the area between altitudes of 1,300-1,600 m a.s.l (July 1995). The species was observed in the primary forests of both nature reserves, as well as in planted pine and acacia stands.
Specimens collected: Madiun: BMNH 19184.108.40.206.
27. Mt. Penanggunang-Mt. Arjuno
Counties: Modjokerjo, Malang, Pasuruan.
Habitat: The Mt. Kawi and Mt. Arjuno area is presently a mozaic of partly regenerating former coffee plantations, partly degrading lowland, hill and montane forest in varying degrees of disturbance (Smiet, 1992). Only small parts of the area have protection in three existing nature reserves, of which the almost 5,000 ha of Arjuno Lalijiwo is by far the largest. Mt. Pananggunang is situated north of Arjuno, and remains largely covered in forest from c. 600 to the summit at 1653 m a.s.l.
Status: On Mt. Pananggunang a fair number of groups were observed near the PPLH Centre for Environmental Education, and near the Hindu temples of Candi Colotundo (Aug. 1997). This is probably the locality with the highest percentage of groups containing one or more red individuals. On Mt. Arjuno groups were observed in the lowland forests near the village of Tretes, between 1250 m a.s.l. and the saddle at 2250 m a.s.l. at the northern slopes (Aug. 1997), between 1300-1700 m a.s.l. near the hot water springs of Cangar, and at 1500 m a.s.l. near the Batu Ondo(k) waterfalls, on the southern and southeastern slopes (Sept. 1997, Nov. 1998). Individuals of the erythristic pelage colour morph have been recorded in the area.
Specimens collected: Kawarasan: RMNH; Rembang: BMNH 19220.127.116.11, 1954.57; Arjuno: MZB 1731, -2, ZRC 4378, -9; Mojokerto: BMNH 1918.104.22.168; Pugeran: MZB 3620.
28. Mt. Kawi-Kelud
Counties: Malang, Blitar, Kediri.
Habitat: Some 50,000 ha of continuous forest between the volcanoes of Mt. Kawi and Mt. Kelud ranging from 300 to 2806 m a.s.l. is a proposed nature reserve (MacKinnon et al., 1982). For a description of the area see Smiet (1992). The area suffers heavily from forest fires.
Status: Three groups observed at altitudes between 1200 and 1700 m a.s.l. near the waterfalls of Cuban Rondo, Mt. Kawi (Sept. 1997). Kohlbrugge (1896) reported on specimens from Lawang. The species has been collected throughout the area. Individuals of the erythristic pelage colour morph have been reported from in the area.
Specimens collected: Blitar: MZB 3372; Batu: RMNH.
29. Mts Kidul and P. Sempu
Habitat: The Kidul mountains on the southern coast of Malang are covered with some large stands of largely undisturbed lowland rain forest. The Lebakharjo and Bantur forests, respectively covering 13,000 and 5,000 ha, constitute two of the most important areas of lowland forest on Java, and have been proposed as reserves (Whitten et al., 1996; Bekkering and Kucera, 1990). Only a few hundred hectares near Balekambang, receive protection as a recreation forest. Wood cutting and hunting form major threats (MacKinnon et al., 1982). The area is connected through plantations, secondary forest area and separated by a road from the 57,000 ha Mt. Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The island of Sempu is situated a few hundred meters of the coast of the Lebakharjo and Bantur forests, and has been designated as a nature reserve.
Status: Observed in Oct. 1989 near the village of Pujiharjo in Lebakhardjo (S. van Balen in litt., 1998). Three groups of ebony leaf monkey observed near Balekambang, both in the beach forest as in the rain forest adjacent to it (Aug. 1997), and the species seems to be present throughout the entire area. Individuals of the erythristic pelage colour morph have been reported to be present by local wardens in Balekambang and Nursahid et al. (1996) reported on the occurrence of erythristic individuals on P. Sempu.
Specimens collected: Wonokoio: RMNH.
30. Mt. Bromo-Tengger-Mt. Semeru
Counties: Probolinggo, Malang, Pasuruan, Lumajang.
Habitat: The Bromo-Tengger National Park is best known for its spectacular 10 km wide Tengger Caldera, its sand sea with squats the active volcano Mt. Bromo. The Mt. Semeru is Java’s tallest mountain rising 3,676 m a.s.l. Its slopes are covered with some undisturbed lower and upper montane forests as well as Casuarina forests.
Status: Van Bemmel-Lenneman and van Bemmel (1940) reported on the occurrence of ebony leaf monkeys in the Tengger mountains, and noted that the species occurs relatively high up, in the surroundings of the Smeroehoeve at 2100 m a.s.l., and even higher up near the summit of the Semeru. Also van der Veen (1940) recorded a number of ebony leaf monkeys that had died at Semeru’s summit. Individuals of the erytristic pelage morphs apparantly were more abundant than the melanic morph (van Bemmel-Lenneman and van Bemmel, 1940). Kohlbrugge (1896) reported on specimens from Puspo. Beudels & Hardi (1980) list the species for the national park and R. Nursahid (pers. comm. 1998) reported the species to be common on Semeru’s western slopes.
Specimens collected: Tosari: RMNH.
31. Nusa Barung
Habitat: Nusa Barung is an island c. 6,000 ha in size, 10 km of the southern coast of the eastern part of Java. It is covered in deciduous forest and has been a reserve since 1920 (MacKinnon et al., 1982). Timber theft posses a significant threat to the island and most marketable timber has been removed (Whitten et al., 1996)
32. Daerah Tinggi Yang
Counties: Probolinggo, Bondowoso, Jember.
Habitat: The Yang highlands comprise of an undulating plateau between 1,700 and 2,400 m a.s.l. The vegetation of the plateau mainly consist of Casuarina forests and grassy meadows. The forests are partially enclosed in a 14,500 ha wildlife reserve. Threats to the area include poaching, burning of the grasslands, and use of the area for military exercises (MacKinnon et al., 1982).
Status: MacKinnon et al. (1982) report ebony leaf monkey to be present on the Yang Plateau. The species was reported to be present on Mt. Lamongan, west of the plateau (Aug. 1997). Individuals of the erythristic pelage colour morph have been recorded in the area.
Specimens collected: Jember-Puger RMNH; Jember: MZB 6698; Mtsunungan Yang: MZB 1927; Besuki: RMNH.
33. Pasir Putih, Mt. Ringgit and Mt. Beser
Counties: Bondowoso, Panarukan.
Habitat: Pasir Putih is a popular tourist beach on the northern coast of East Java. Just outside the village some fringes of mangrove forest still can be found. These forest are connected with the deciduous forests on Mt. Ringgit and Mt. Beser by a c. one km wide strech of teak forest. The forest on Mt. Ringgit and Mt. Beser are among the few remaining areas of deciduous forest left on Java. On Mt. Ringgit c. 2000 ha has been proposed as nature reserve, while on Mt. Beser c. 4000 ha has been proposed as wildlife reserve, both areas should be managed together (MacKinnon et al., 1982).
Status: Ebony leaf monkeys have been observed in the mangrove forests near Pasir Putih, and in the teak forests between Pasir Putih and Mt. Ringgit (Aug. 1997, I. Setiawan, pers. comm. 1997). The species is very common on Mt. Ringgit (Aug. 1997); over 6 groups, observed in teak forest, in dense shrubs, and in dry deciduous forest. The erythristic pelage colour morph is present (I. Setiawan and A. Prima Setiadi, pers. comm. 1996), which was confirmed by local inhabitants.
34. Meru Beteri
Counties: Jember, Banyuwangi.
Habitat: This 50,000 ha lowland forest ranging from sea level to 1223 m a.s.l. has the status of national park; it is the last area where the presence of Javan tigers has been confirmed (MacKinnon et al., 1982). The former coffee plantation enclave is presently being abandoned, but encroachment from the outer sides keep threatening the integrity of this important area. The national park is separated by a relatively narrow area of plantations, secondary forest and a road from the Ijen Mountains.
Status: Ebony leaf monkeys are most likely to be present throughout the greater part of the National Park. Hoogerwerf (1972) reported ebony leaf monkeys to be common, especially in the surroundings of Bandi Alat and Sukamade. Bismark and Wiryosoeparto (1980 in Supriatna et al., 1988) studied the species in Meru Beteri, and reported densities of 20 individuals km-2. Seidensticker and Suryono (1980 in Whitten et al., 1996) illustrated the unevenness of ebony leaf monkey in the Meru Betiri National Park, indicating a preference for beach and hill forest.
35. Mts Ijen
Counties: Banyuwangi, Bondowoso, Ampera, Jember.
Habitat: The area is only partly protected by the 2,560 ha nature reserve of Kawah Ijen Merapi Ungup-ungup, and three tiny reserves. More important reserves are proposed for Mt. Raung (60,000 ha) in the southwest to Meru Betiri and Maelang (70,000 ha) in the northeast to Baluran National Park (MacKinnon et al., 1982).
Status: A number of specimens have been collected both at Ungup-ungup, as some adjacent sites. Individuals of the erythristic pelage colour morph have been recorded in the area.
Specimens collected: Kendeng III: MZB 705,-6; Ungup-ungup: BMNH 1954.56, MZB 704, ZRC 4372; Sodong Jerok: BMNH 1954.57,-8,-9; Tamansari: BMNH 1954.60, ZRC 4376.
Habitat: The Baluran National Park totalling 25,000 ha with savannah and monsoon forest centered on the dormant volcano of Mt. Baluran (1250 m). There is a small moist forest inside the volcano crater, and the extensive coastline is covered with beach forest and mangroves.
Status: A fair number of groups observed in the beach forests near Bama, along the road from Wonorejo to Bekol, and in the savannah near Bekol. Groups up to 25 individuals were not uncommon (Aug. 1997). The species occurs throughout the park, including Mt. Baluran, but is perhaps most easily observed in the beach forest near Bama. The erythristic pelage colour morph occurs in the Park (S. Hedges and M. Tyson, pers. comm., 1998).
Specimens collected: Bajulmati: BMNH 1954.61; Kosambikamp: MZB 6696,-7,-9, 6700.
37. Alas Purwo
Habitat: Alas Purwo (or Blambangan, or Banyuwangi Selatan) is a 62,000 ha lowland forest reserve ranging from sea level to 360 m a.s.l. in the driest part of Java. Presently the area is a nature reserve (MacKinnon et al., 1982). Wood cutting forms the major threat to the habitat.
Status: Appelman (1939) recorded ebony leaf monkeys in small numbers. Likewise, Hoogerwerf (1972) reported the presence of the species near Pantjur on the western coast, but noted that the species was rather rare. Observed in Nov. 1989 and May 1990 at Gucur near Pasar Anyar, both in natural and teak forest, and near Trianggulasi (May 1990) (S. van Balen, in litt., 1998). The erythristic pelage colour morph occurs in the Park (S. Hedges and M. Tyson, pers. comm., 1998).