Order Decapoda Latreille, 1802
Section Heterotremata Guinot, 1977
Superfamily Portunoidea Rafinesque, 1815
Family Carcineretidae Beurlen, 1930
Genus Longusorbis Richards, 1975
Type species. Longusorbis cuniculosus Richards, 1975 by monotypy.
Longusorbis quadratus new species
Diagnosis. Relatively small Longusorbis , with quadrate carapace, ornamented margins and narrow urogastric region.
Description. Relatively small carapace, quadrate in outline, widest across the anterior third located at the outer orbital spines, weakly convex transversely and longitudinally. Rostrum medially sulcate and downturned, broadly rimmed and bicornate base. Wide orbits cut by two fissures, inner third concave, outer two-third first sinuous ending in a forwardly and outwardly directed, massive outer orbital spine. Including the outer orbital spine, the lateral margin is armed with 4 equally outwardly directed spines decreasing in size posteriorly. Regions are distinct and demarcated by furrows. The anterior process of the relatively small mesogastric region extends almost to the frontal, the distinct top fading into the downturned sulcus of the rostrum. The most prominent furrow is the cervical furrow extending sinuously from the base of the mesogastric lobe ending below the outer orbital spine defining the posterior margin of the swollen protogastric and hepatic regions. The forwardly-directed hepatic furrow separates the protogastric and hepatic regions. The width of the urogastric region is smaller than the maximum width of the mesogastric region. The broad shield shaped cardiac region is separated from the branchial regions by broad shallow furrows. The mesobranchial lobes bear three tubercles forming a triangle. The posterolateral margins are long and converging posteriorly, slightly concave at the probable point of attachment of the fifth pereiopods.
Material. Two specimens. Holotype IGM-8969, and paratype IGM-8970. Coniacian, Mexcala Formation, Temalac, Guerrero.
Measurements. Holotype IGM-8969 length ca. 5.0 mm, width ca. 5.0 mm. Paratype IGM-8970 length ca. 13.0 mm, width ca. 13.8 mm.
Etymology. Refers to carapace outline.
Remarks. This new species differs from L. cuniculosus in having a quadrate outline, a spinose postero-lateral margin, a significantly narrower urogastric region and a more robust front.
This genus migrated at the end of the Cretaceous to the north where, in the late Campanian-early Maas-trichtian, the closely related L. cuniculosus reaches up to 5 cm in carapace width (4 times larger than L. quadratus n. sp.) in the Shelter Point locality at Vancouver Island, Canada (Richards, 1975; Schweitzer et al. 2003).
An eastward migration has also to be taken in account considering the close evolutionary relationship with the genus Carcineretes known from the Maastrichtian of SE Mexico, Belize and Jamaica (Vega et al. 1997; 2001). Longusorbis and Carcineretes have a very similar quadratic outline, bicornate and downturned rostrum, orbital incisions, carapace groove-arrangement and posterior margin morphology.
The genera Withersella, Torynomma and Binkhorstia , all belonging to the Torynommidae (Van Bakel et al., 2003), also have very similar to almost identical dorsal carapace morphologies as seen in the carcineretids. Distinction often can only be made on the ventral characters. Torynommidae differ only from the Carcineretidae in having a dorsally orientated, strongly reduced fourth and/or fifth pair of pereiopods, and being much smaller in overall size. Either the Carcineretidae and the Torynommidae are evolutionary very closely related or the dorsal similarities are a matter of convergence. In the first case the Torynommidae should also be placed in the Superfamily Portunoidea. To solve this matter more study and material is needed.
The carcineretids and torynommids, although relatively successful during the Cretaceous, finally didn’t cross the K/T boundary. It seems that they couldn’t cope with the thinner, more spinose and hexagonal carapaces (better swimming morphology) and much larger orbits (better predatory morphology) of the Late Cretaceous radiating genera like Xanthosia and Cretachlorodius (Fraaye, 1996). Distribution of the two known species of Longusorbis is given in Figure 5.
Section Podotremata Guinot, 1977
Family Etyidae Guinot and Tavares, 2001
Genus Xanthosia Bell, 1863
Xanthosia zoquiapensis new species
Diagnosis. Very small etyid; carapace sub-hexagonal in outline, wider than long; anterolateral margin scalloped and posterior margin convex; front sulcate; orbits very large; orbitofrontal margin more than half total width; prominent sinuous cervical furrow, several branchial furrows.
Description. The carapace is subhexagonal in outline, almost flat longitudinally and gently inclined at the margins transversely, length about two-thirds the width. The frontal area is bilobedand slightly extended beyond the orbits; a deep median sulcus divides around the anterior part of the mesogastric process. The orbits are extremely large, elliptical and outward facing. The rimmed orbital margin bears two short notches. Orbitofrontal margin covers about 70% the total carapace width. The anterolateral margin is straight starting at the large, blunt outer orbital spine, and regularly divided by four notches. The widest part of the carapace is at the epibranchial angle. The posterolateral margin is clearly convex and indented by a relatively long, frontally directed mesobranchial notch. Carapace separated into distinct regions by shallow groove system. Cervical furrow strongly sinuous. Posterior margin concave, bordered with distinct ridge and about half the total carapace width.
Material. Two internal moulds of carapace. Holotype IGM-8971, and paratype IGM-8972. Campanian, Mexcala Formation, Zoquiapa, Guerrero.
Measurements. Holotype IGM-8971 length ca. 9.0 mm, width ca. 6.0 mm. Paratype IGM-8972 length ca. 9.0 mm, width ca. 7.0 mm.
Etymology. Named after Zoquiapa town, nearby locality IGM-3557.
Remarks. Xanthosia zoquiapensis n. sp. differs clearly from the American Gulf Coast Plain species (Schweitzer Hopkins et al., 1999) in having a much wider orbitofrontal area, a strongly convex posterolateral margin and the absence of granular ornamentation. Concerning groove arrangement, orbit and margin morphologies, X. zoquiapensis n. sp. is most closely related to X. buchi (Reus, 1845) (Albian-Cenomanian), X. socialis Bakel, Fraaije & Jagt, 2005 (Campanian) and X. semiornata Jagt, Collins & Fraaye, 1991 (Maastrichtian) all known from NW Europe.
It differs from X. buchi and X. socialis in having a much more convex posterolateral margin and a shorter and interrupted mesobranchial furrow and from X. semiornata in lacking a strong anterior ornamentation. In addition, the new species is stockier than most species of Xanthosia.
Van Bakel et al. (2005) drew attention to a possible westward migration from the possible ancestor X. buchi towards the Campanian species from the American Western Interior and Atlantic Coastal Plain. The occurrence of X. zoquiapensis n. sp. in the Campanian of Mexico perfectly fits into this paleomigratory model. Figure 5 illustrates distribution of species of Xanthosia during the Late Cretaceous.
Superfamily Retroplumoidea Gill, 1894
Family Retroplumidae Gill, 1894
Genus Costacopluma Collins and Morris, 1975
Type species. Costacopluma concava Collins and Morris, 1975 by original designation.
Fig. 4. 1. Reconstruction of Longusorbis quadratus new species. 2. Reconstruction of Xanthosia zoquiapensisnew species. 3. Reconstruction of Costacopluma bishopi Vega and Feldmann.
Costacopluma bishopi Vega and Feldmann, 1992
Description. Carapace small, ovate in transverse section, widest at level of mesobranchial areas, with three prominent, rounded transverse ridges. Anterolateral margins straight, with a small spine at level of cervical groove; posterolateral margins rounded; posterior margin straight; anterior margin nearly straight, slightly concave above orbits, bordered by two prominent, forward directed spines. Orbits large, rounded. Rostrum prominent, bilobulate. Fused protogastric and mesogastric lobes form anterior transverse ridge, slightly inclined backwards in central part to ovate mesogastric lobe. Cervical groove deep, parallel to protogastric lobes, curved at level of mesobranchial lobes. Second ridge formed by fusion of epibranchial and mesobranchial lobes, of nearly uniform width, inclined posteriorly to base of mesogastric lobe where they become narrower. Posterior ridge formed by metabranchial lobes and cardiac/intestinal regions. Metabranchial lobes per-pendicular to carapace length, half as long as epibranchial/mesobranchial lobes. Cardiac region subtrapezoidal, intestinal region narrow at base of cardiac region.
Material. Hypotypes IGM-8973 to IGM-8974.
Measurements. Hypotype IGM-8973 length ca. 6.5 mm, width ca. 7.5 mm. Hypotype IGM-8974 length ca. 6.3 mm, width ca. 9.0 mm.
Remarks. In documenting Costacopluma concava from the Upper Cretaceous of Nigeria, Collins and Morris (1975) mentioned presence of two paratypes from the Coniacian of the Awgu Limestone, Abakaliki Province. However, none of these paratypes is illustrated and although their morphology may resemble Costacopluma , it is not clear if these specimens do belong to this genus. Thus, C. bishopi is the first well-documented report for Costacopluma in Coniacian beds and may represent the oldest occurrence of a widely distributed genus during Late Cretaceous – Northeastern Mexico, Greenland, Nigeria, Northern India – (Collins and Morris, 1975; Gaetani et al., 1983 ; Vega and Perrilliat, 1989 ; Collins and Rasmussen, 1992 ; Vega and Feldmann, 1992), and the Paleocene – California, Venezuela, Senegal, Brazil, Argentina – (Collins et al., 1994; Feldmann and Martins-Neto, 1995; Feldmann et al., 1995; 1997; De Araújo-Távora and Da Cruz-Miranda, 2004; Nyborg et al. 2003) (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Coniacian – Paleocene paleobiogeographic distribution of brachyuran species of genera present in Temalac and Zoquiapa study areas, Guerrero. Base map modified from Barron, 1981; Dhondt, 1992 and Smith, 1994. Data based on: Collins and Morris, 1975; Richards, 1975; Vega and Perrilliat, 1989; Collins and Rasmussen, 1992; Collins et al., 1994; Feldmann and Matins-Neto, 1995; Vega et al., 1995; Feldmann et al., 1997; Schweitzer et al., 1999; Guinot and Tavares, 2001; Schweitzer et al., 2003; Nyborg et al., 2003; Araujo-Távora and Da Cruz-Miranda, 2004; Van Bakel et al., 2005.
C. binodosa from the upper Campanian of Greenland was described by Collins and Rasmussen, 1992 on the basis of one incomplete specimen. It is larger than C. bishopi and bears straight lateral margins.
If the genus raised in America, it must have migrated eastwards to Africa, and northwards to Greenland. African retroplumids also migrated to the east, to reach the north part of India, and by Paleocene times, Costacopluma prevailed in the Paleocene seas of Senegal (Fig. 5). Although abundant in northeastern Mexico during Maastrichtian times, the genus vanished in this area by Paleocene times, and dispersed west to California and south to the north and central parts of South America (Fig. 5).
During Eocene times in Europe, Costacopluma may have given rise to the extant genus Retropluma Gill, 1894 (see Via, 1982), known from deep-water settings of the modern Indopacific sea (Saint Laurent, 1989).