Conclusions and recommendations
Two to four M. zaza, including multiple mature males, shared group-exclusive nests. Since nest-sharing male dyads consisted of either related or unrelated individuals, nest groups can be regarded as social groups, suggesting M. zaza lives in dispersed cohesive multi-male/multi-female groups. We show a preference of M. zaza for large and tall sleeping trees with a high number of lianas. The animals used few sleeping trees, which may indicate scarcity of suitable trees within the respective home ranges. We recommend the protection of forest fragments with large and tall trees and discourage selective logging. We particularly recommend that trees suitable for use as sleeping sites by species such as M. zaza, such as those with a minimum DBH of 30 cm and a minimum height of approximately 16 m, be considered in any habitat suitability assessment.