Contributions to Zoology, 82 (2) – 2013Ana Ivanovic; Gregor Aljancic; Jan W. Arntzen: Skull shape differentiation of black and white olms (Proteus anguinus anguinus and Proteus a. parkelj): an exploratory analysis with micro-CT scanning

To refer to this article use this url:


Adams DC, Rohlf FJ. 2000. Ecological character displacement in Plethodon: biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of United States of America 97: 4106-4111.

Aljančič M, Habič P, Mihevc A. 1986. Črni močeril iz Bele krajine [The Black olm from White Carniola]. Naše jame 28: 39-44.

Arntzen JW, Sket B. 1997. Morphometric analysis of black and white European cave salamanders, Proteus anguinus. Journal of Zoology, London 241: 699-707.

Baur G. 1897. Remarks on the question of intercalation of vertebrae. Zoological Bulletin 1: 41-55.

Cardini A, Elton S. 2007. Sample size and sampling error in geometric morphometric studies of size and shape. Zoomorphology 126: 121-34.

Deban SM, Wake DB. 2000. Aquatic Feeding in Salamanders. Pp. 65-94, in: Schwenk K, ed., Feeding: form, function and evolution in tetrapod vertebrates. San Diego: Academic Press.

Dolivo-Dobrovolsky V. 1923. Das Kopfskelett des Grottenolmes (Proteus anguinus Laur.). Zoologischer Anzeiger 57: 281-284.

Dolivo-Dobrovolsky V. 1926. Lobanja človeške ribice (Proteus anguinus Laurenti). Rad Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti 232: 190-209.

Duellman WE, Trueb L. 1986. Biology of amphibians. New York: McGraw Hill.

Gorički Š, Trontelj P. 2006. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial control region and flanking sequences in the European cave salamander Proteus anguinus. Gene 378: 31-41.

Gorički Š, Niemiller ML, Fenolio DB. 2012. Salamanders. Pp. 665-676 in: White WB, Culver DC, eds, Encyclopedia of caves. 2nd ed. Oxford: Academic Press.

Grillitsch H, Tiedemann F. 1994. Die Grottenolm-Typen Leopold Fitzingers (Caudata: Proteidae: Proteus). Herpetozoa 7: 139-148.

Hanken J, Hall BK. 1993. Mechanisms of skull diversity and evolution. Pp. 1-36 in: Hanken J, Hall BK, eds, The skull: functional and evolutionary mechanism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Herrell A, Van Damme R, Vanhooydonck B, De Vree F. 2001. The implications of bite performance to diet in two species of lacertid lizards. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 662-670.

Herrell A, McBrayer LD, Larson PM. 2007. Functional basis for sexual differences in bite force in the lizard Anolis caroli­nensis. Biological Journal of Linnean Society 91: 111-119.

Ivanovič M. 2012. Novo odkritje tretje lokacije habitata črnega močerila v Beli krajini [New discovery of the third locality of the black olm in Bela Krajina]. N-vestnik 9: 1-2.

Jeffery WR. 2008. Emerging model systems in evo-devo: cavefish and microevolution of development. Evolution & Development 10: 265-272.

Jones WK, White WB. 2012. Karst. Pp. 430-438 in: White WB, Culver DC, eds, Encyclopedia of caves. 2nd ed. Oxford: Academic Press.

Klingenberg CP. 2011. MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. Molecular Ecology Resources 11: 353-357.

Klingenberg CP, Barluenga M, Meyer A. 2002. Shape analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry. Evolution 56: 1909-1920.

Lanza B, Arntzen JW, Gentile E. 2010. Vertebral numbers in the Caudata of the western Palaearctic (Amphibia). Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste 54: 3-114.

Meij MA van der, Bout RG. 2008. The relationship between shape of the skull and bite force in finches. The Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1668-1680.

Parzefall J, Durand JP, Sket B. 1999. Proteus anguinus Laurenti, 1768 - Grottenolm. Pp. 57-76 in: Schwanzlurche I, Grossenbacher K, Thismeier B, eds, Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Wiesbaden: Aula Verlag.

Pipan T, Culver DC. 2012. Convergence and divergence in the subterranean realm: a reassessment. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107: 1-14.

Rose C. 2003. The developmental morphology of salamander skulls. Pp. 1684-1781 in: Heatwole H, Davies M, eds, Amphibian Biology: Osteology. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty and Sons, Pty. Ltd.

Shaw T. 1999. Proteus for sale and for science in the 19th century. Acta Carsologica 28: 229-304.

Sherratt E, Wilkinson M, Gower DJ, Klingenberg CP. 2012. Evolution of cranial modularity in caecilians. Integrative and Comparative Biology 52 (Supplement 1): E159.

Sket B. 1993. Nova rasa človeške ribice (Kako se “naredi” novo podvrsto ali članek o članku). [A new subspecies of olm (How to “make” a new subspecies, or an article about an article.] Proteus 56: 3-11.

Sket B. 1997. Distribution of Proteus (Amphibia: Urodela: Proteidae) and its possible explanation. Journal of Biogeography 24: 263-280.

Sket B, Arntzen JW. 1994. A black, non-troglomorphic amphibian from the karst of Slovenia: Proteus anguinus parkelj n. ssp. (Urodela: Proteidae). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 64: 33-53.

Trontelj P, Gorički Š, Polak S, Verovnik R, Zakšek V, Sket B. 2007. Age estimates for some subterranean taxa and lineages in the Dinaric Karst. Acta Carsologica 36: 183-189.

Trontelj P, Douady CJ, Fišer C, Giber J, Gorički Š, Lefébure T, Sket B, Zakšek V. 2009. A molecular test for cryptic diversity in ground water: how large are the ranges of macro-stygobionts? Freshwater Biology 54: 727-744.

Trueb L. 1993. Patterns of cranial diversity among the Lissamphibia. Pp. 255-343 in: Hanken J, Hall BK, eds, The skull: patterns of structural and systematic diversity. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Verwaijen D, van Damme R., Herrel A. 2002. Relationships between head size, bite force, prey handling efficiency and diet in two sympatric lacertid lizards. Functional Ecology 16: 842-850.

Wiens JJ, Chippindale PT, Hillis DM. 2003. When are phylogenetic analyses misled by convergence? A case study in Texas cave salamanders. Systematic Biology 52: 501-514.

Wilkinson M, San Mauro D, Sherratt E, Gower DJ. 2011. A nine-family classification of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zootaxa 2874: 41-64.

Yamamoto Y, Espinasa L, Stock DW, Jeffery WR. 2003. Development and evolution of craniofacial patterning is mediated by eye-dependent and -independent processes in the cavefish Astyanax. Evolution & Development 5: 435-446.

Zelditch ML, Swiderski DL, Sheets DH. 2012. Geometric Morphometrics for Biologists: A Primer. 2nd ed. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.Received: 11 February 2013